24.2 Diversity of Life: Protista key: p. 186

  1. Clade Diplomonadida

    1. Giardia. What symptoms can these parasites produce and what is the means of transmission?
      Giardiasis (travellers' diarrhea): symptoms include gas, diarrhea, stomach cramps; transmission from contaminated water or food.

  2. Clade Euglenozoa

    1. How do Euglenids move?
      They move by beating flagella.
    2. What is a kinetoplast?
      A kinetoplast is an organized mass of DNA within a large mitochondrion.
    3. What disease is cause by the genus Leishmania? Identify the vector and describe the symptoms.
      Leishmaniasis is spread through sandflies; symptoms include skin sores, fever.
    4. What disease is cause by Trypanosoma? Identify the vector and describe the symptoms.
      Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) is carried by tsetse fly (Glossina); symptoms include fever, headaches, mental deterioration.

  3. Clade Alveolata

    1. What are red tides?
      Excess nutrients fuels rapid growth of Dinoflagellates.
    2. p. 187 What disease is caused by Plasmodium? Identify the vecotr and describe the symptoms.
      Plasmodium causes malaria; transmitted by Anopheles mosquito: symptoms include fever/chill cycles, joint pain, vomiting, anemia
    3. What are the functions of macronucleus and micronucleus?
      Macronuclei control normal functions; micronuclei exchanged in sexual conjugation.

  4. Clade Stramenophila

    1. Saprolegnia. Note the sporangia and oogonia. Identify their functions.
      Sporangia produce asexual spores; oogonia produce eggs (antheridia produce sperm).
    2. What is diatomaceous earth?
      Sediments of silica formed from fossilized walls of Diatoms.
    3. Vaucheria. What reproductive structures are seen?
      Antheridium, oogonium.
    4. Fucus specimen. What is the adaptive value of controlling buoyancy?
      Air bladders help blades reach light, stabilize the thallus in waves and wind.
    5. Laminaria specimen. What is kelp?
      Kelp is multicellular brown algae (Phaeophyta).

  5. Clade Cercozoa

    1. Foraminifera. What material composes the test?
      Test is made of organic matter hardened with calcium carbonate or silica.

  6. Clade Radiolaria

    1. Radiolaria. What material composes the test?
      Test is made of amorphous (opaline) silica.

  7. Clade Amoebozoa

    1. Rhizopoda. Identify the means of mobility.

    2. p. 188 Amoeba. What type of pseudopodium is seen?
      "Lobopodia" contain both ectoplasm and endoplasm; endoplasm (fluid portion) flows into pseudopodium.
    3. Entamoeba. What disease is caused by the species. Identify the means of infection, plus symptoms of the disease.
      Amebic dysentery is caused by contaminated water or food: symptoms include stomach pain, bloody stools, fever.
    4. Physarum (plasmodial slime mold). Do the slime molds move? How do they consume their food?
      The multinucleate amoeba moves by cytoplasmic streaming; consume food by phagocytosis.
    5. Dictyostelium (cellular slime mold). Which stages of the life cycle are seen growing in the petri dish?
      Multicellular pseudoplasmodium ("slug").

  8. Clade Rhodophyta

    1. Polysiphonia specimen. What is an epiphyte?
      An epiphyte grows on other organisms or structures.

  9. Clade Chlorophyta

    1. Describe division of labor in the Volvox colony. Gonidia cells produce daughter colonies for asexual reproduction; biflagellated cells form the wall.
    2. Spirogyra. Describe the form of genetic exchange seen.
      Conjugation tubes allow 2 gamete cells to fuse (syngamy) and form zygote, which then undergoes meiosis.
    3. Oedogonium. What are the functions of the oogonia and antheridia?
      Oogonia produce eggs, antheridia produce sperm.
    4. Illustrate alternation of generations as it occurs in green algae like Ulva. Show which stages are haploid and diploid, plus identify where meiosis occurs.
      Gametophyte is haploid, sporophyte is diploid, meiosis occurs in sporangia.

Lab notes made Jul 19, 2010 by Peter Chen