The electronegative oxygen atom confers polar (and hydrophilic)
properties to this group.
Do not confuse this functional group with the hydroxide ion, OH^- .
Ketones have the carbonyl group within a carbon skeleton.
Aldehydes have the carbonyl group at the end of the carbon skeleton.
The nitrogen atom tends to be basic and confers polar properties to
Amino acids, which make up proteins, contain both an amino and a
A major role played by this group is stabilizing protein structure.
The weak electronegativity of the carbon atom makes this group
nonpolar and hydrophobic.
The two steroid molecules differ only in the functional groups
attached to 4 fused rings.
These subtle variations influence the developmental differences
between female and male vertebrates.