Unit 3: Genetics Extras  Study Guide

Chapter 17 From Gene to Protein Review
  1. A major function of DNA is to direct the synthesis of in two steps: and ; this flow of information is known as the central .
  2. In prokaryotes, transcription and translation take place .
  3. In eukaryotes, an intermediate step of RNA is needed due to the presence of the .
  4. Transcription has three stages: , , and .
    Transcription review and exercise:
  5. In eukaryotes, the transcript is a and needs to be processed to form the mature that will used in translation.
    RNA Processing review:
  6. The genetic information on mRNA is encoded as a sequence of RNA triplets, or .
  7. The possible codons constitute the genetic code.
  8. The mature mRNA exits the nucleus, and translation takes place on , together with RNA (tRNA).
  9. The on the transfer RNA ( tRNA ) binds with the mRNA to add a specific amino acid to the polypeptide chain.
  10. Translation also has three stages: , , and .
    Translation review:
  11. Central dogma summary.
  12. are changes in the DNA of a cell which may lead to an abnormal .
    • mutations are changes in one pair of nucleotides.
    • A base-pair substitution mutation may result in a , , or mutation.
    • Insertions and of nucleotide pairs may produce mutations.
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